Effectiveness of Parent-Focused Interventions to Increase Teen Driver Safety:A Critical Review
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We critically reviewed recent parent-directed teen driving interventions in order to summarize their success in meeting stated goals; identify promising intervention components and knowledge gaps; aid in the selection, adaptation, and dissemination of effective interventions; and guide future research efforts. We conducted a comprehensive systematic search of 26 online databases between November and January and identified 34 papers representing 18 interventions. Several interventions—in particular those that had an active engagement component, incorporated an in-vehicle data recorder system, and had a strong conceptual approach—show promise in improving parental supervisory behaviors during the learner and early independent phases, increasing teen driver skill acquisition, and reducing teens' risky driving behaviors. We identify essential characteristics of effective parent-involved teen driving interventions and their evaluation studies, propose a comprehensive and multi-tiered approach to intervention, and discuss several research areas and overarching issues for consideration. Parents strongly influence their children's development. In general, involved parents who are responsive i. Parent-focused programs and interventions can foster positive child development by targeting factors such as parenting skills, beliefs, and practices [ 2 , 6 - 8 ].
Results for : Low teen anal painal
An anal fistula is an abnormal tube-like connection that forms between the inside of the anus at the anal gland and the skin right outside the anus. Think of it as a tunnel. The abscess that causes the fistula is quite painful. It can cause intense pain and swelling around the anus.
This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal inter-course among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. A total of seventh-grade students